Values are binding provisions that reveal the wishes and feelings of societies. According to this, value is the provisions that are the indicator of the wishes and feelings of the people in a society about things and are accepted as a common and unchangeable whole by all members of a society. Values give a person a respectable freedom, develop a person's personality and increase his power by enabling him to reach perfection. In the study, values education approaches were discussed one by one and their general contributions were revealed by examining them through value education.
The article “Approaches to Value Education and Evaluation of Approaches” has been prepared within the scope of the project "Introducing National Spiritual Values with Scientific Articles in English" with the financial support of the State Support Agency for Non-Governmental Organizations of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the initiative of the Socio-Economic Research Public Union.
Key Words: Value, Value Education, Approaches to Value Education
The value acquisition, which is formed by the efforts of the individual and the effect of the environment throughout life, starts in the family and continues with the school. “How should I teach?” in values education. The question has always been a question that has always been on the minds of almost every teacher. There are different opinions about which approaches and methods should be applied in values education.
Although there are different opinions about values, almost all of them are of the opinion of transferring and gaining values to the growing generations. As a matter of fact, when the history of values education is reviewed, it is seen that there is a consensus that values should be a part of education. However, the issue of how to do this has been discussed a lot, especially in the 20th century. In fact, this issue, which includes experts from different fields, has become a very complex discussion today.
The values that are desired to be gained in education can be conveyed through the traditional indoctrination method, or it can also be achieved through the value clarification approach, through which the student becomes aware of his own values. In addition, value analysis approaches are also used in order to understand the student's values and to make a systematic analysis of his value. In this article, first the approaches used in values education will be explained and then their evaluation will be made.
2. VALUE CONCEPT
In social life, people either learn or teach. People think about what is valuable with positive examples that are accepted by the majority, and what is worthless with negative examples that the majority does not accept. The achievements within the framework of these ideas are the most important treasures of life. In social life, values sometimes come to the fore and sometimes remain in the background, within the framework of the requirements of the age. But it does not lose anything from its value and importance.
Values are binding provisions that reveal the wishes and feelings of societies. Based on this, they are the provisions that indicate the wishes and feelings of people in a society about things and are accepted as a common and unchangeable whole by all members of a society.(Topçu 2012: 90)
Value is a judgment internalized by the individual who has adopted values such as respect for human rights, integration with nature and all living things, being scientific, participation, empathy, universal thinking, and critical logic. Values are real information about whether something is desirable or undesirable. So it can be said that value equals belief. If we look at it in terms of moral education, it is the standards that a person internalizes as a result of his interaction with his environment and directs his behavior.
The concept of value is different from "what has been", which is the direct subject of science and knowledge, and expresses "what should have been". Therefore, the concept of value is ideal and action-oriented, as it has a practical rather than a theory. (Bolay 2007: 60)
“The concept of value is human-specific. The understanding of value emerges as the main factor that enables the definition of words and behaviors as right-wrong, beautiful-ugly, good-bad. In this respect, artistic value measures come to the fore when it is said beautiful-ugly, moral value measures when it is said good-bad, and religious value measures when it is said halal-haram. National values are accepted as the flag, banner, historical past and victories that hold a nation together. Each of the words, actions, behaviors or tangible assets that are valued according to value measures are seen as value.” (www.dinibil.com)
It is stated that value is shaped by human behavior. In this respect, value can be defined as “The abstract measure that helps to determine the importance of something, the value that something touches, value; what appears in the person's connection with the object as a wanting, needing being; It is defined in different ways such as the whole of the material and spiritual elements that cover the social, cultural, economic and scientific values of a nation” (Kaymakcan, and Meydan 2014: 24).
Value is defined as “the superior qualities and equipment that make people valuable. Since the values possessed are the factors that will determine the personality, perspective, behavior and even life of the individual in the future, the individual's awareness of certain values, gaining the necessary values, adopting new values; It is very important that he transforms all these values into behavior by making them the basic structures of his personality.”(Yaman 2012: 28)
The concept of value is used in many fields of science such as religious sciences, philosophy, psychology, sociology, economics, mathematics and history. The fact that it deals with human behavior makes values important in terms of social sciences. The subject of the concept of value by many different disciplines makes the definition of the concept of value very difficult. Because each discipline dealt with and examined the dimension of this concept that concerns its own scientific aspect, but did not take into account the side that did not concern it. Therefore, there is no consensus on a definition that will be accepted by all disciplines about the concept of value. (Ulusoy and Dilmaç 2012: 5) This is why we see different definitions of value:
“Value is the belief that something is desirable or undesirable. Value is to help them become capable of performing all human activities in a way that suits their purposes as human activities. In Aristotle's words, it is to help people to be able to do "man's work". (Ulusoy and Dilmaç 2012: 15)
As it is known, man is a being with material and spiritual aspects. Values constitute the spiritual aspect of human existence. Values such as religion, faith, morality, honor, pride, honor, modesty, loyalty, pact, honesty and chastity are included in the spiritual aspect of man. These values are the condition of human existence when viewed from a point of view.
At the same time, values are “the things that we want to have goals not only in our own life, but also in the lives of others, although we have goals in our own lives.” (Güngör 2000: 84)
The most important of the values is the moral values included in the spiritual values. Moral values have been expressed by many thinkers in many periods of human history. For example, Yusuf Has Hacib, in Kutadgu Bilig, the first great work of Turkish-Islamic literature, listed the moral values in question and described the exemplary and ideal person as follows:
“He is honest in his work and word, disciplined, steadfast in justice and righteousness, dignified and humble, does not steal, does not lie, does not drink, does not gossip, is extremely generous and benevolent. He treats the people around him with mercy and fairness, and acts in accordance with traditions and etiquette.” (Fire 2012: 4)
An important value in people's lives has been the teachings of religion. In Turkish society, the orders and prohibitions of religion have taken their priority place in the formation of values and practices of social life. Religious values have been the cornerstones of societies and the touchstone of life for hundreds of years. But the modern age, also called the age of enlightenment, which started after the industrial revolution, made everything pass like fashion trends, eliminated values, and achieved this by appealing to the human soul at the maximum level. After this age, religious (spiritual) values fell from the eyes of societies and remained in the background in shaping the social life of societies. This unfortunate situation has been seen as the main reason for the moral collapse of modern societies.
Values are the essence of the society in which we live. Values are beliefs. With these beliefs, life becomes meaningful. “The union formed by people who are connected to each other by their ancestry, homeland, interests, religion, language and culture is called a nation.” (Artillery 2012: 90)
Nations have values that they have created by reducing, multiplying, assimilating and adopting throughout their history within their own structure. The values that reveal the moral structure of a nation, together, constitute our nation's history. Our character, which has developed in our national history, has taken life from the moral principles of the religion of Islam.
“Courage, disobedience to the strong, rebellion against injustice, respect for elders, hospitality, keeping promises, forgiving the evil done to oneself can be summarized as the characteristics of our nation's moral character.” (Artillery 2012: 90)
“One of the aims of education is to transfer the value judgments of the society to the next generation. This transfer is carried out either openly or implicitly through the prepared programs. Here, again, educators; They play an important role in the preparation of programs and the transmission of these values.” (Altun 2012: 10)
Regarding value, Gandhi says:
“Think positively, because your thoughts become your words. Keep your words positive, because your words become your actions. Keep your actions positive, because your actions become your habits. Keep your habits positive, because your habits become your value. Keep your values positive, because your values become your destiny.” (Cüceloğlu, and Erdoğan 2013: 114-115)
“As it is known, values are the beliefs that underlie our choices of emotions, thoughts and behaviors. Values direct our thoughts, feelings, behaviors and decisions by forming a belief system among themselves. They tell us how to live, what makes sense and what doesn't." (Cüceloğlu, and Erdoğan 2013: 114-115)
What makes values valuable is the value given to them. In social values, they are the values that are valuable to that society, that are the source of life and that are indispensable. In addition, they are obliged to live together in the same lands, even if they do not speak the same language, even if they are not from the same ancestry. In such cases, there are values formed in the historical process. These values enable communities to live together in peace. Value is a way of life that is adopted by everyone in societies, has a past, and consists of all kinds of behaviors, thoughts and rules. In any case, culture is the combination of these values. Such multicultural life forms express themselves through the unique values they create. When we look at the Ottoman geography, these forms are frequently encountered. Peoples lived together in peace and mingled. Spiritual values lie in the infrastructure of this life.
“In a societal sense, values are the extended principles accepted by the society as the best, the most correct, the most beneficial.” (Gürler 2013: 4) A happy social life revolves around people with moral values. Troubles are settled by people of value without resorting to legal remedies. In short, neighborhood law is a set of virtues. Neighborhood law consists of virtues.
In the world that has become a global village, most of the values are no longer national and have become internationally accepted values under the name of virtue. Justice, responsibility, courage, peace, patience, respect, humility, love, gratitude, being virtuous, compassion, cooperation, frugality, forgiveness, staying away from bad and bad habits, avoiding violence, cooperation have become universal values.
Values create culture in the process. “Culture is considered to be everything that people do and produce. Tradition, custom, justice, morality, law, language, religion and education are the elements of culture. (Ulusoy and Dilmaç 2012: 101) History talks about the civilizations of nations with culture.
Human history stands on moral foundations. Where there is bad morality there is cruelty, there is no justice, where there is no justice there are cruel rulers. In the countries of virtuous and just rulers, there is peace, there is peace, there is happiness.
“All human beings, from the noblest to the simplest, face the responsibility of improving and correcting their own existence. Man's own perfection is the foundation of all his development and moral progress.” (Diaz 2009: 20-21)
All the structures that make social life livable and orderly, which are the chromosomes of the society that hold societies together and form the genes of the society that will carry them to the future, are called values. Values are sometimes principles, sometimes beliefs, sometimes religious teachings, sometimes traditions. It is the historical accumulations and beliefs of the society. These are the agreed upon acceptances by all. It is the rules that regulate social life. They are tools of social solidarity. They are socially integrative and unifying forms. Until the concept of nation countries was formed, values were only included as moral concepts consisting of customs and religious values. However, after the concept of nation-state, the concepts of homeland, flag and nation were added as values to these values.
For turkish; Homeland, Flag, Culture, Language, Religion, Family and Freedom are national values. They are indispensable for the Turkish Nation. Homeland is a sacred value. The flag has also taken place in social life as a value attributed to holiness. Justice, Loyalty-Fidelity, Compassion-Compassion, Forgiveness, Love, Respect, Tolerance, Truthfulness-Honesty, Humility-Chastity, Courage, Humility-Modesty, Responsibility, Helpfulness, Cleanliness are spiritual values. With the mortar made of these values, our social life stands. The continuity of the Turkish Nation and the Turkish State in the world will continue with the value given to these values and their transfer to future generations.
In this research, spiritual values consisting of justice, gratitude, peace, responsibility, patience, courage, respect, tolerance, humility, virtue, forgiveness/forgiveness, love, compassion, cooperation and frugality were discussed. The importance and effect of values education in helping secondary school (high school) students transform these spiritual values into behavioral gains and a meaning in their lives were evaluated.
2.2.Properties of Values
The properties of the values can be listed as follows:
1. Values are beliefs that have cognitive, affective, and performance elements.
2. Values are related to the goals of the individual and the behavioral patterns that are effective in achieving these goals.
3. Values are structures that are open to change in which individuals experience changes in their priorities over time.
4. Values are preferences that an individual can design equally for himself and others, or only for himself, or only for others, or for others rather than himself, or for himself rather than others.
5. Values are the standards that guide the selection or change of behavior, people and events.
6. Values override specific actions and situations
7. Values are ranked among themselves according to the importance they carry, and it provides a system that determines value priorities.
8. Values can vary according to the cultures they belong to, as well as within the cultures to which they belong. (Iscan 2007: 16)
2.3.Classification of Values
Many different definitions and classifications have been made while describing the definitions and properties of values related to the concept of value. The classifications made by Nelson, Rokeach, Spranger and Schwartz are considered as the most well-known classifications.
According to Nelson, values are; It is divided into three groups: individual values that include our individual preferences, group values shared by the members of a certain group, and social values that enable the individual to continue his existence in the social structure. (Black 2007: 20)
Rokeach has classified values into core values and instrumental values. Core values consist of desirable values such as success, free choice, equality, virtue. In the scope of instrumental values, there are values such as willingness, open-mindedness, being talented, cheerful, courage, forgiveness, helpfulness, honesty, imagination, independence, flexibility, intelligence, kindness, responsibility and high self-control. (Black 2007: 20)
One of the best known groupings of values is said to be made by Spranger. He divided values into six basic groups: “These are; aesthetic, theoretical (scientific), economic, political, social and religious value groups.” (Iscan 2007: 22)
Schwartz values; It is classified as power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security. Power refers to social position and having social power. Success includes being successful and competent with a personal success orientation based on social standards. While hedonism refers to individual pleasure and orientation to pleasure, it is to be brave with the pursuit of excitement and novelty within the scope of stimulation. Self-direction expresses independence in thought and action, being creative. The content of universalism includes features such as being open-minded, being virtuous, social justice and equality. Benevolence, on the other hand, consists of being helpful, honest, forgiving, and a spiritual and meaningful lifestyle. Traditionalism is an expression of respect and devotion to cultural or religious customs and ideas. Compliance, another value, requires restraint of impulses and actions that may harm others and go against societal expectations. The last value in classification, on the other hand, includes features such as security, the peace and continuity of the society, existing relationships and the person himself, and the desire for the continuation of the social order. (Iscan 2007: 26)
Apart from these classifications, another classification was made by Lickona (1991) and the values; “responsibility, respect, tolerance, common sense, self-control, benevolence, compassion, cooperation, courage, honesty, truthfulness and democratic values.” (Iscan 2007: 22)
Values are considered to be each of the guiding abstract or concrete principles, beliefs or assets that enable people to make a choice among alternative ways about the meaning of life and the shaping of daily life. In this context, it is the spiritual aspect of the experience and habits of the society that has been passed down from generation to generation, which has survived to the present day, and the traditional value to the experience, habits and forms of belief remaining after its lack and testing; Traditional values have a huge role in society. In this period when science and technology developed, the younger generation set this innovation, which they defined as a modern concept, against traditional values, and modern concepts were seen as a threat to traditional values. Moral and spiritual traditional values became disregarded as a result. However, traditional values and modern concepts aimed at improving the living standard of the society could be gathered under one roof and used constructively and positively for humanity. Because societies reveal their existence with traditional values and raise their young people with good morals within the framework of these values. (Ulusoy and Dilmaç 2012: 41-42)
It can be said that the values of the verbs and the values of the functions are separated as follows:
A. Pleasant-not pleasant: It belongs to our emotions, with their forms such as joy and sorrow.
B. Vital values: Values such as health, illness, age, death, fatigue, strong and weak, noble and common are vital values. (Korlaelçi 2012: 93)
C. Spiritual values: It is superior to other values. These values form a separate area from the human body and the environment. Others can be sacrificed for the sake of these values. These values can be grasped through spiritual acts such as preferring, hating, loving. The laws of these values cannot be reduced to biological laws. For the flag, all other social values such as self-sacrifice, sense of homeland and nation, and love of humanity are also included in spiritual values.
D. Sacred values: “They constitute a sacred, indescribable space that constitutes the highest step in the division of values into layers. These values are intuitively grasped as absolute objects. Any other value sees its symbolic duty according to its sacred values. The states of this value are creed, belief, worship, awe, etc.” (Korlaelçi 2012: 93)
In order to strengthen the human personality and give it a strong structure, he takes refuge in a being he considers sacred. In this asylum, he also creates his own beliefs and values. This is in human nature. This is how human nature was created. Man is equipped with the above-mentioned values. Whether he likes it or not, a person who will live in society has to take these values into account. Because values prepare a person for life to be a mature, personality, productive and good person. The institutions that will provide this preparation are family and educational institutions.
3. VALUES EDUCATION APPROACHES
The most important issue about values is value education. For this reason, the approaches to be preferred in education gain importance in gaining values to students and young people. These approaches are; It is expressed as “indoctrination, moral development, analysis, explanation and action learning” (Superka 1976: 8).
This approach includes teaching values and providing consistent support for desired behaviors. (Kim Suh and Traiger 1999: 723-727) The goal in this approach is to construct a certain group of predetermined values in the mind of the individual. (Added 2010: 34)
The inculcation approach is to instill certain values in the students and ensure that these values are comprehended, adopted and internalized by the students. In this approach, students can apply and reflect the values they have learned to their lives; “Modelling, positive and negative reinforcement, games, simulations, role playing and learning through invention” (Superka 1976: 4) can be listed as the methods to be followed. The steps used in the suggestion approach are as follows:
a) The value that is decided to be inculcated is determined.
b) Values are placed in order of importance and priority among themselves and their levels are determined.
c) It is determined what should happen in the reflection of the value to the behaviors.
d) Efforts are made to ensure that the child understands the reflections of values in behavior with appropriate methods and tools.
e) It is evaluated whether the achieved results such as thoughts, attitudes and behaviors are in accordance with the targets. (Superka 1976: 4)
3.2.Moral Development Approach
In the approach developed by Kohlberg and Selman and Galbraith and Jones, the teacher needs to understand the evaluation of good and bad behavior from the child's point of view. It is essential to deal with the child's own moral judgments rather than adapting to his or her various situations. (Iscan 2014: 1203-1222)
The purpose of the moral development approach is to help students develop their moral principles to guide their behavior. (Kim Suh and Traiger 1999: 723-727) “The bases used by the student while evaluating give information about his/her moral development. Here, the way of reaching the solution is important, not the solution of the student.” (Okudan 2010: 31) The following steps are followed in the moral development approach:
a) The student encounters a situation that creates a dilemma,
b) The student's statement of the dilemma situation,
c) Testing reasoning for a situation in a moral dilemma
d) It reflects reasoning.” (Superka 1976: 189)
Analysis approach; It is an approach developed by Oliver, Newmann, Shaver, Larkins, and Metcalf. This approach aims to “help students conceptualize their values through logical thinking and follow their analytical thinking processes while making interconnections between them.” (Superka 1976: 4)
The goal to be achieved in the value analysis approach is “to provide children with the knowledge and skills that will enable them to make the most appropriate decision for a situation. In order to achieve this goal or to decide on a behavior, the student must also have a cognitive capacity.” (Added 2010: 41) “Based on this approach, methods such as structured discussion, testing principles, analyzing similar situations, debate and research are used.” (Superka 1976: 4)
3.4.Value Disclosure Approach
The approach to explaining values was developed by Louis Raths, Merrill Harmin, and Sidney Simon (1966). (İşcan 2014: 1203-1222) In the approach, students are helped to realize their own values and enable them to think rationally and review their feelings. This approach helps students internalize their own values through decision making. (Fernandes 1999: 5)
“The approach uses methods such as role-playing, simulation, designed or real-life situations, in-depth self-analysis exercises, sensitivity activities, out-of-class activities, and small group discussion.” (Superka 1976: 4)
3.5.Action Learning Approach
It is stated that the action learning approach was developed by Jones and Newmann. “In this approach, it is aimed for students to see themselves as members of the social system rather than as interacting beings, by providing opportunities for individual and social actions based on their own values. When using this approach, action projects within the school and community, organized groups, and work based on the application of various skills in interpersonal relationships.” (Iscan 2014: 1207)