Mənəvi Dəyərlərin Ötürülməsində Müəllimin Əhəmiyyəti: Mənəvi Dəyərlərin Öyrədilməsi Nəticəsində Qazanılan Xarakter
Values are binding provisions that reveal the wishes and feelings of societies. According to this, value is the provisions that are the indicator of the wishes and feelings of the people in a society about things and are accepted as a common and unchangeable whole by all members of a society. Values give a person a respectable freedom, develop a person's personality and increase his power by enabling him to reach perfection.
Man is a creature with a material and spiritual aspect. Values constitute the spiritual aspect of human existence. Values such as religion, faith, morality, honor, pride, honor, modesty, loyalty, pact, truth, and chastity are included in the spiritual aspect of man.
This study is a research that examines to what extent secondary school students have behaviors based on moral values that are expected to be gained through values education.
The article “The Importance of the Teacher in the Transfer of Spiritual Values: Character Gained as a Result of Teaching Spiritual Values”, with the financial support of the State Support Agency for Non-Governmental Organizations of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the initiative of the Socio-Economic Research Public Union, within the scope of the project "Introducing National Spiritual Values with Scientific Articles in English" has been prepared.
Keywords: Value, Spiritual Value, Education Spiritual Values
Values are the precious treasures of the life we live in. Values give a person a respectable freedom, develop a person's personality and increase his power as an entity by enabling him to reach perfection.
“Beliefs, predictions, information, which are seen as the reason for the existence, unity and functioning of a social structure as a whole, and which are encouraged and tried to be protected, are called values.”(Ulusoy and Dilmaç 2012: 15) ) Human is a being who lives with values, the things he cares about and values have always been.
“What is their real value?” is a question that needs to be answered and shaped by the teachers of secondary school students in the world of values.
Spiritual values provide individual and social integration within the framework of social stability by revealing the principles to be followed. Spiritual values are concerned with the belonging of individuals. It strengthens human and social relations. For example, equity is a value that reinforces the sense of justice and trust in society. Love is a value and even a very important virtue that shapes people's relations with each other and gives them a feeling of respect.
The important thing for people in education is to teach values to behavior. This importance has increased more in today's societies due to the increase in opportunities and possibilities compared to the past. For this reason, it has become more important to deal with the teaching of values in terms of behavior. (Meydan 2012: 1)
2. SPIRITUAL VALUES AND EDUCATION
Spiritual values have an important place in people's lives. In this respect, spiritual values have a decisive feature in the formation of societies and the consolidation and maturation of interpersonal relations. Spiritual values give a person an identity and mature the individual.
The principles that exist in human nature and presented by the purpose of human creation are seen as spiritual values. Love, justice, patience, tolerance, humility, forgiveness, responsibility, courage, compassion, frugality, etc. Values such as these are the values that exist in the creation of human beings.
This process of gaining / gaining value, which can be said to continue throughout life, is called values education. (Yaman 2012: 18)
Education, on the other hand, is generally defined as “an activity consisting of raising the consciousness of individuals and society and transforming their behaviors towards good, right and beautiful” (Hökelekli 2013: 205).
“Values education is the process of adding value to the individual. According to some, values education is the teaching of values clearly and precisely. According to some, it is to improve the understanding and knowledge of individuals about values, directly or indirectly. (Hökelekli and Gündüz 2004: 385)
“In values education, the main question is whether to transfer the social values that distinguish right and wrong to students or whether students will be allowed to shape their own values. Values education includes adult authority and the transfer of values advocated by adults to students. Traditional educators state that character education shapes the core values of youth. Some educators criticize the traditional approach to character education as a form of brainwashing or mind control. These educators emphasize values clarification, moral judgment, and consensus building. This enables students to build values based on options and play a central role in decision making. The problem here is whether the students will be taught virtue and appropriate behaviors or whether the students will decide what is right and wrong.”(İşcan 2011: 245-255) “The process of developing values starts in the family, media, peer group, teachers, caregivers, local relations and other factors follow.”(Halstead and Taylor 2000:169-202)
People who attach importance to spiritual values education are welcomed with respect and love in the environment they are in with the education they will receive. Because the goal that is desired to be achieved in moral values education is to raise individuals with personality, moral virtue, character, mature, correct and honest within the framework of the expectations of the societies. "The systematic implementation of this type of education in educational institutions and outside of school, preparing and educating students for life, and ensuring their mental development, will not only differentiate the perspectives of the students towards the environment and the future, but will also contribute to their preparation for the world as if they will never die, and for the hereafter as if they will die tomorrow." .”(Halstead and Taylor 2011: 174)
2.1.The Importance of Values Education
The necessity of values education for the student necessitates that the student should be considered as a whole in education. Because as an individual, it should not be forgotten that the student is not a machine or a robot. “There are people who value, hate, envy, become passionately attached, etc., as much as his intelligence and bodily abilities. There is another aspect of the individual, unless this aspect of the individual is trained, it will be difficult to talk about a balanced personality.” (Meydan 2014: 95)
When we look at values education in terms of definition and scope, it is observed that the definition and scope vary according to different education systems. “As a matter of fact, UNESCO tries to reconcile the traditional with the modern. On the one hand, the definition indicates a preference among values with the expressions “the young people discover positive values”, while the expressions “progress according to their own potential” refer to an individual-centered, value-developing understanding that emphasizes internal processes in education processes.” (Meydan 2014: 94)
Values and values education are frequently mentioned in today's education community and the importance of this issue is emphasized. “The fact that values education has come to the fore is more related to the increasing need for values rather than its importance.” (Arslan, and Yaşar 2014: 10-11)
Values education, as the name suggests, is based on the adoption of values by students and teaching them as a lifestyle. “In this education, the individual must have the ability to appeal to both his will and his conscience. Values education tries to raise individuals who are committed to their values. The formation of a society that adheres to its values, cares about its values and transfers its values to the next generations will only be possible through values education.” (Meydan 2014: 52)
A firm conviction about values emerges with a strong link between knowledge and behavior. Parents in the family and teachers in schools can easily observe this bond. Teaching values is realized by giving warning and knowledge of morality. Teachers can test how much their students know about moral values. It can help them choose the right behavioral gains. Here are the things a teacher will expect from students:
a) The student can distinguish between right and wrong,
b) He also knows why it is like this,
c) Have an idea about directing to the right behavior. (Bayrakli 2014: 48)
Teaching values is now very important for the science of education, which is a discipline. It reveals whether the education and training has developed within the framework of its follow-up in line with the values. Considering that education and training is an activity, values are the organs that create this activity.
If we envision the society as a building, individuals can be considered the building blocks of the building, and values can be considered its cement. There is a possibility that they are exposed to the same situation in their society, as a building without mortar and cement will easily fall apart. (Tarhan 2014: 12)
“People have always needed the power of religion and spirituality. But this need has become a necessity in our time. In the past, our ancestors lived comfortably with a very simple knowledge of religion and customs, with a mere "imitation" faith. Because the whole social environment and spirituality instilled in them. Family life was floating in the air of religion, the whole community was breathing the air of religion. Today, the situation has completely changed. Today, the sense of religion has weakened, and the old religious upbringing has been replaced by arrogant disrespect.” (Başgil 2011: 23) For these reasons, values education in the family and at school became necessary. With value education, the situation of giving individuals character has emerged.
Value is “all kinds of affective, intellectual, behavioral, rules and values that are adopted and kept alive in a society. The sum of values creates culture. Culture is a set of values formed as a result of the achievements of societies in all social areas and their transfer from generation to generation through symbols. Values form the identity of a society. The social habits of the society are included in this identity. The individuals living in the society, no matter how different they behave, give themselves away because they carry the core, yeast and prototype of the society they are members of. A good understanding of values is absolutely necessary for the society to look to the future with confidence and to protect it from spiritual diseases. The maturation of values takes many years. Values are dynamic, something is constantly added to it and something is constantly removed from it. However, this change and development process takes place very slowly. If this process is intervened, social turmoil and anarchy or authoritarian governments may occur.”(Albayrak 2015: 69-70)
Today, the diseases of our age are various incidents of violence and terrorism, theft, bribery, extortion and corruption, threatening the material and spiritual life of all people in the world, the future of the generation, on the other hand, giving importance to materialist thought, the loss of importance of belief values, religious values and the deterioration of the social structure. Although many models are put forward to eliminate this cultural and value deformation, the way to deal with these spiritual diseases and problems of the age will be to protect national and spiritual values. Values are that important. Its value should be known and passed on from generation to generation. Here, it becomes clear how important the education and protection of spiritual values is.
Man is programmed to live socially. Almighty Allah created people with different characters and suggested social life to complement each other. Again, in order to regulate this social life, he set rules in his Book and presented the prescriptions of exemplary living to humanity through divine books. In order to implement these divine messages, innocent models, practitioners, that is, prophets, were chosen from among people. With their exemplary morality and moral lifestyle, the prophets became an example and a mercy to humanity.
Values are our social codes that we want children to pass on to the future. We must inform them of our codes and when we can put them in their minds and transform them into behaviors, we can be sure of our future and social peace. Hz. Ali said, “The place where the word is planted is the heart, the place where it is ordered is the thought, the mind that strengthens it, the language that reveals it, the letters are the body, the meaning is the meaning, the ornament is the regular saying, the neatness is the correctness.” (Ali 2015: 410), he aims to teach values to new generations in order to create virtuous generations.
Everyone has a role to play in raising good people. This task does not fall solely on parents or teachers. In order to ensure the development of values in children, there are educators, psychologists, families, adults who take part in the protection and construction of civil society. (Ulusoy and Dilmaç 2012: 92)
Everyone living in society has a duty to raise human beings. Bad morals is a social problem and often leads to problems that require clinical interventions. The moral problem in psychology is an important developmental problem. The changes that a person undergoes from infancy to adulthood provide psychological and social development. (Güngör 2012: 24) In societies where bad morality is at its peak, destruction or extinction will be inevitable.
The most important method in preventing bad morals is to teach moral values to individuals. “Values education has an important place in ensuring social order. Values and laws hold people living in society together.” (Aydın-Gürler 2012: 16) Nations that have received their moral share from the teaching of values live in peace and security.
Confucius said, “Educated people think clearly when they look, hear well when they listen, be warm in their appearance, be respectful in their behavior, be serious in their work, how to ask questions when they are in doubt, problems when they are angry, and justice when they see profits.” (Çağlayan 2012: 74) and summarizes the behavioral changes and developments made by education in humans.
Virtue is a teachable concept. The important thing is to understand the importance of this subject and to put forward good projects. Teaching values is now on the agenda of all states, even many countries have included values in their curricula and have put forward very big projects to teach them.
“It has been scientifically proven that all children are born with the motivation to learn. Even when they enter schools, they are still in this desire and excitement. Therefore, educators do not need to motivate students. This is their innate instinct, educators' responsibility is to prevent the loss of this feeling. Educators and parents must work together to preserve this invaluable value inherent in all students.” (Jenkins 2012: 152)
When it comes to education in schools, the first thing that comes to mind is academic information. In fact, this should always be the secondary goal. The main thing should be the education of hearts, the development of hearts. “The main subject and field of study of education should be the improvement of human morality. Spiritual discipline must be established. An understanding of education that does not care about moral and moral values and accepts academic success as the only criterion raises one-dimensional personalities. Selfish characters who forget themselves while trying to bring themselves to the fore and order others are the product of such an understanding.” (Hökelekli 2013: 25) If the education of the hearts is neglected, educated thieves, tricksters and haramzades will continue to be raised. If values education takes place, fair and responsible individuals will be raised.
Man consists of body and soul. While building the mind with education, the soul should not be neglected. “The problem of morality in psychology is largely a problem of development and progress. The changes that a person undergoes from birth to adulthood provide psychological and social development in this respect. (Güngör 2012: 24)
Education is the basis of living freely in the world and living humanely. Nations that attach importance to education can protect their freedom and continue their development.
“It is education that makes the spirit of the nation. The lack of education puts the spirit of the nation on the ground. Not valuing education prepares the collapse of the nation's spirit. Whichever direction education moves, the spirit of the nation follows it. In that case, nation means education.” (Artillery 2013: 30)
Our destiny lies in the adherence to the moral and religious structure of the young generation who will prepare the future. This building is a frail and skinny building today.” (Artillery 2013: 143)
The history of education has emphasized the importance of character education. “Many philosophers from Plato to Aristotle, Kant and Dewey have tried to produce various thoughts on the role of character and character education in our lives in society. Character education, as its initial philosophy, includes the basic moral values that form the basis of good character, such as honesty, justice, responsibility, respect for others, which are considered important as a society. (Ulusoy and Dilmaç 2012: 79)
2.2.Teacher's Duties in Transfer of Value
The teacher is the main actor of the school, "the hammer knows where to hit." The school is the child's second home, and the teacher is the parents at the school. “School is the big family hearth established by the state, which is active, that is, constructive, in our moral life. All the character, feelings and thoughts of tomorrow's society are prepared here. Trainers will play the role of father in this large family. The tradition that bestows more honor on the teacher than on the father is certainly correct.” (Topçu 2013: 194)
Equipped schools are not enough. The teacher must also be equipped. “Teachers who make an effort to make education successful and effective in schools that are ready for teaching with strong, attractive, artistic and aesthetic equipment should also take moral education seriously.” (Çağlayan 2012: 74)
The teacher is not just a being in the classroom who has the role of conveying knowledge. The teacher should have a responsibility and be present in the classroom beyond just conveying the topic prepared for that day. The teacher is the person who lives with the child in his/her developmental process.
“The teacher cannot see himself or herself as a person who only acts in the classroom to practice certain roles, the teacher is the person who accompanies and witnesses the formation of a person's character and future.” (Cüceloğlu-Erdoğan 2012: 153)
Teachers build the future. They transform the raw material into an artistic work of art. “Teacher is a person who has a high social responsibility and affects the society significantly due to the characteristics of his profession.” (Doğan 2012: 236)
The teacher should be aware of the effect on the child. High school students should put their teacher above their parents. You must believe and trust him. In the eyes of the student, the teacher should be everything. A teacher who is in this direction can have a very positive effect on students during this period of character development.
“The most important element of education is teachers. Because teachers are the initiator, developer and implementer of education for young people.” (Cüceloğlu-Erdoğan 2012: 19)
The teacher is the leader in the classroom in value transfer. In order to achieve this, he must be well educated. In order for what he teaches to be permanent, he must first know the spiritual values he aims to teach. The teacher should live these values and set an example. These core values are:
Ø Must love and respect rights and justice. A sense of responsibility must be established and developed. He must believe in love and love must be perfect. Must be diligent and diligent.
Ø Self-confidence should be full and encouraging. He should be able to serve the student with the love of worship. He should be grateful and know how to give thanks. He should be humble and be humble.
Ø He should speak in a balanced way, behave in a balanced way and always apply the element of balance. He should empathize. He should not impose sanctions without empathy.
Ø His compassion and honesty should not be doubted. It should always be open to cooperation and peaceful. He should know how to be patient and not give up on forgiveness.
2.3.The Importance of the Teacher in Transfer of Value
Teachers are indispensable for education. An effective teacher is the architect of efficient education. An effective teacher is a person who loves students, takes pleasure in learning and teaching, does what he does with enthusiasm, believes that his job is a very lofty job, and knows that he ultimately directs and shapes the society with the knowledge and values he adds.
All societies want to prepare their next generations stronger so that people will have a future and happiness, all countries want this, and this is done by teachers in educational institutions in all countries.
One of the most important responsibilities of the teacher is to teach students that they should not rent their brains, that they should look at things critically, and that they should use reason and science as their guide.
Teachers are the most active beings in education, trying to bring about change and provide positive behavior in young people with what they teach in the process of teaching and learning. The teacher constantly informs the children and makes necessary explanations. In addition to this teaching, it imposes spiritual values on the student in the sense that he sees his future. But this is the most important task and side of the teacher. If we think that these values education will gain meaning in the future lives of students, it is certain that this relationship will not only be through information exchange. With his behavior, the teacher gives value education to the children. While doing this education, the teacher is the person who gives values education by asking questions to the children without tiring them.
2.4.The Place of the Teacher in the Student's World
In effective teaching; Achieving success in the classroom is achieved through a solid dialogue between the student and the teacher. Thanks to this dialogue, the student keeps all his receivers open and enjoys receiving whatever the teacher gives. Students expect their teachers to love them. In fact, it is the attitudes and behaviors that students expect from their teachers in the classroom, for teachers to establish a dialogue with them with effective body language, and to make students active by making eye contact with all students with their energetic and enthusiastic attitudes. This type of teacher can easily teach students the importance of liking and love, the right and justice by caring for all of them at the same rate, respect, responsibility, mutual cooperation, and patience by being successful.
“The teacher is a model in the classroom. He is the ideal type of person in the eyes of his student. He knows everything. In general terms, the concept of the teacher in the student's world is correct, it is beauty and goodness. The most important function of the teaching profession, which raises future generations, should be to teach students national and spiritual values. (Fire 2012: 7)
The function of teaching on children is greater than that of their parents, especially in secondary education. In school, the teacher has an indispensable place on children. He even tries to be and act like a teacher he loves and respects. Appealing to the student's eyes is an effective and complementary method in value teaching. This method is based on the principle of self-example. It is never difficult for children to imitate and practice the behavior of a teacher loved by children.
The aim of teachers in values education should be how to raise “good people”. “A person who thinks right, empathizes, loves, is compassionate, shares, is clean and fair, and lives by absorbing many moral values like these is expressed as a “good person”. (Yılmaz 2012: 24) It is a humane and legal duty for a teacher to convey all the above-mentioned characteristics to his students and to make them acquire them as behavior.
2.5.Characteristics of the Teacher Who Will Transfer Value
“The teacher is a pioneer in value transfer, but first of all, he must have his own values, believe in them, live and set an example. Love and respect for truth, boundaries and sense of responsibility, striving with enthusiasm, love, trust, awareness of service, gratitude, sense of gratitude, inner peace, balance, empathy, fairness, honesty, cooperation should be the basic values of the teacher. (Cüceloğlu-Erdoğan 2012: 197)
Thomas Lickona has expressed a very important and vital element regarding the subject of values in his book Education for Character. Accordingly, the school and the family have responsibilities to be models for their children to grow up the way they want them to be. Lickona offers the following advice for teachers:
Ø “To act as a model guide,
Ø Establishing a moral discipline and community, and promoting moral reflection. Creating a democratic classroom environment,
Ø Teaching values through the curriculum, Implementing collaborative learning,
Ø To develop the awareness of art, to produce solutions for conflicts,
Ø Creating a positive moral culture at school, Developing friendships with parents.” (Ulusoy and Dilmaç 2012: 99)
At school, students not only learn knowledge from their teachers, but also learn the principles of behavior, the rules necessary to adapt to social life, and the development of behavior. The formation of values in secondary school students is not limited to school and family resources. Students at this age can be influenced by many different sources. Mass media, fashion, social media and the social process that occurs in society and creates the movement area of students in this age affect the student. (Furat 2012: 147-162) In this environment, teachers should work to make a positive impact by following all sources of values and taking into account the preferences of students.
Since the education of spiritual values is within the framework of faith-based religion lessons, it should be given to students by teachers with a neutral and non-ideological professional notion. The teacher should be well versed in the subjects in his field of science. It should be a good moral model. It should be his most important duty to transfer spiritual values not only to the brains of students, but also to their hearts by living and keeping them alive.
The value-transmitter teacher should first try to teach students human and spiritual values, to be sensitive to values and how to transform them into behavior. It creates a suitable environment for children to perceive and teach spiritual values in schools. In addition to academic knowledge, it works to raise its students as individuals who take it as a guide to be a good person when they are thrown into social life.
“The idea that teachers set an example in the classroom has been eroded. The teacher, who gave up his authoritarian attitude, became limited to the forty-minute subject to be told. However, individuals are always in search of an exemplary model in terms of directing their lives. For this reason, it is necessary to include a number of authorities in the education process, where the individual will be positively affected and can take a role model for himself. Here, in the education process, the teacher in the classroom is the only natural authority that can influence the student.” (Acat 2015: 144)
A general standard regarding the professional ethics of the teacher has not been formed yet. In our country, the teaching profession is considered sacred, and our traditions and religion place respect for the teacher at the forefront. In this context, if we count the characteristics that a teacher should have; to be kind, to love students, to make them feel love, to respect, to be open to new information and opinions, to be impartial, to be fair, to be empathetic, to be flexible, to be tolerant, to be patient, not to be far from the values of the society, to respect the values of the society, to respect the values of the individual We can express it as not forgetting that there may be differences, controlling emotions, knowing and living the universal and spiritual values ordered by religion. The teacher is the person who is taken as an example in the classroom and even in the environment. He should be aware of this and pay attention to it.
The influence of the personality of the teacher and his positive behaviors on children and young people is great and deep, because the teacher is a person who has a great influence on the formation of the character of children and young people, the development of their cognitive, affective and ongoing abilities, the acquisition of good habits and their attitudes. It is a model that the student copies without realizing it. Because; The most important feature in a teacher is “love-knowledge-enjoyment”.” (Yağmur 2015: 114)
The teacher is the one who teaches. It performs this function, for example, by expressing it verbally, using the language of state. “Teachers generally have roles in and out of school. The teacher is expected to fulfill these roles effectively. Teacher roles are generally: “Representation, Education, Leadership, Discipline, Information resources, Parenthood, Confidence, Mediation, Guidance, Judge, Counseling and Counseling.” (Yağmur 2015: 114-142)
“To be a natural authority, the teacher must be in the process, at the center of the process. It draws its strength not from the law, not from the notebook, but from the service it provides to its students. Students are happy to be with him. When they are with them, they feel safe. Most importantly, they trust him.” (Acat 2015: 145)
The role of the teacher for human-centered understanding can be summarized as follows:
1. “Recognizes students with friendliness and understanding, and observes their capacity to help.
2. He impresses students with his creative personality.
3. He advises and guides them in all matters.” (Acat 2015: 145)
Teachers, as a requirement of their profession, affect people and societies to a great extent. They can easily reach people. With their leadership spirit, they can create class consciousness for common goals. They can hug anyone without reciprocity. They are not egotistical and think of other people. They are lifelong learners and teachers. They live a life of morality and virtue. They fully live their spiritual values. They have all human values that can be an exemplary model for their students. “Teacher leader is the person who can share the teaching vision with the students and realize the instructional requirements of this by reflecting it on the plans and adopting it. As a leader, the teacher needs to be able to play the roles of a guide, coordinator, and counselor in the classroom, supporting formal instructional relationships with non-canonical relationships, trusting and reassuring students.” (Can 2006: 3)
“Teaching as a leader is a teaching role in which the teacher inspires students to learn and understand how to deal with important issues. In this role, the teacher has a high impact on preparing the learning-teaching conditions and atmosphere. He cares deeply about students and tries to feel like them. Based on observations, it identifies key points and finds out how students would go to conclusions. In this method, teaching is seen as a sacred duty, there is a great respect for knowledge and learning, the meaning and magnitude of learning is embraced by the student.” (Topçu 2006: 115)
Teachers who transfer values are self-sacrificing servants who fill our children's minds with knowledge while equipping their hearts with spiritual values and raising them as moral people. In order to carry out this educational service, he should be aware that what he teaches at school is an example to students.
The function of the school rather than the family is greater in students' perception of values. love, tolerance, respect, kindness, justice, responsibility, courage, frugality, etc. The biggest task in terms of learning spiritual values and transforming them into behavior falls on our teachers with a spirit of devotion.
Teachers with this devotional spirit are an example of a perfect person who lives spiritual values in addition to what they teach their students. The information given by such teachers can be forgotten, but their exemplary life and behavior at school and in the classroom are not forgotten, especially by high school students. It's just what they have in mind. Teachers should support the students in knowledge as much as they want.
“We should make people love goodness by giving examples from ourselves. A teacher teaches his students to work, respect, homework, justice, patience, gratitude, courage, virtue, responsibility, forgiveness, frugality, love of nation, adherence to laws, etc. He should show such moral and universal values as behaviors and make his own existence an example for all these superior moral values. If he does so, young people will easily pursue the moral ideal.” (Topçu 2006: 115)
2.6.Teacher's Knowledge and Example
Teachers are people who will understand the spiritual values of children and can feel the period that their spiritual structure needs. In this period, no matter how much information the teacher puts on the child's mind, the information that will take the student forward is the information that is engraved in the heart rather than the mind. “Actually, the vast majority of children have the knowledge to achieve success in one or the other field. The important thing is to reveal and develop the abilities that will be the source of the behaviors that that knowledge will gain. At this point, teachers who are equipped with knowledge and values have a great responsibility.” (Selçuk 2015: 75)
“The relationship of teacher personality, competence, structure and self-confidence with character education is clear. In order for character and values education to be effective, the teacher must believe in his ability to influence the characters of the students, and at the same time, in general, the teachers must believe in their ability to cope with the negative effects that limit the social movement of the students who come from different sources outside the classroom. (Ekşi 2015: 105)
“Teachers should be religious, honest, knowledgeable, merciful, clean, polite, should know the education and training of children, recognize the talents of children, take care of them, and not leave them alone.” (Akyüz 2015: 28)
Mutual communication with students in the teaching profession is important in terms of values education. While giving education to the student, the teacher should add meanings verbally and academically with body language, at this stage, the importance of the subject is understood in line with the aims of which value is desired to be conveyed. He tries to systematize the teaching work. Values to be gained in line with the information given are instilled in the student with love, because this information is the information that will be necessary for the whole life of the student.
3. THE CHARACTER EARNED BY TEACHING SPIRITUAL VALUES
Today, the process of creating successive theories in religious education has revealed another orientation in which many religious educators have begun to express the purpose of religious education within the framework of religious identity formation. According to a growing number of religious educators, the purpose of religious education is to help the formation of religious identity. (Vermeer and Ven 2006: 174) The formation of religious identity is also related to spiritual values education.
Social values are related to the characters of the individuals who make up that society. If the values that make up the society are intact, there is always virtue in that society. People living in a virtuous society also happily exhibit the behaviors brought by spiritual values individually or socially. Virtue emerges in people through the acquisition of spiritual values. This is why individuals who show virtuous behavior within the framework of spiritual values are called people with character.
Character is a temperament that finds itself with people's moral recognition of the good, adopting the good and doing the good. Character is the behavior characteristic that people always exhibit. Occasional good deeds cannot be considered as character.
It is the actions and words shown in the natural state of life. Character is good morals. Character is honesty. Character is virtue.
Character education can be defined as an educational activity for the young generation to gain basic human or spiritual values, to make them conscious and responsible, to transform the transferred information into behavior, sensitive to moral values. (Ekşi 2015: 79)
Character education studies are vital in the first four years of secondary education. Thanks to this character education, it will be beneficial for the student in high school education to bear responsibility, to make sense of his choices in the choices he will make, to develop his knowledge, skills and abilities, and to mature his values as behavior.
In our time, it is as if there is no opportunity for education and value transfer at home. Therefore, character education programs should be applied to students in schools, and their spiritual values and importance should be taught. Character building should be done by teaching these values. People with character have personality. The spiritual values gained educate people. Even when a person is alone, he obeys moral rules instead of evil, and with the education he receives, that person has a character.
Values determine moral rules in societies. Values are revealed by religion, traditions and customs. Individuals raised by a value-seeking teacher, always find the truth in their conscientious inquiries and display virtuous behaviors.
We, educational administrators, families and everyone living in the society should join hands and not sacrifice values to ideologies and other isms. A livable world is possible by keeping the values alive and living. It should raise students, parents, teachers, together with spiritual values.
It is of great importance that knowledge is transformed into behavior along with experience while doing value education in schools. With this experience, the individual gets the chance to make a choice. It also strengthens people in character education, art that matures the character, knowledge of aesthetics, social activities and choice of literature.
Character education, unlike values education, makes more reference to tradition, custom, moral and religious values. It should be known that the character is formed by the balance of the soul and the body. Character is the subtlety and grace that lies deep in the soul. We can define the character as the skills that form a way of life in the soul of the human soul of the spiritual value education given to bring the person to dignity within the framework of this delicacy and grace. (Çamdibi 1983: 32)
As the student learns spiritual values and transforms them into behavior, in the depths of the student's soul; virtues such as righteousness, goodness, avoidance of evil, justice, and benevolence emerge abundantly. The values obtained through such an education give people, individually and socially, peace, happiness, dignity, trust, courage, peace, etc. gives value.
In training of will, patience and showing fortitude in all kinds of difficult conditions are the two most important elements. Students need to endure internal or external hardships or things that may please their own desires. For this reason, it is important in character education to give moral values education based on moral values such as not being able to exist and enduring difficulties. (Kanat 1948: 439)
In addition to the education given in schools, having authority in schools, being asked to follow the rules set institutionally, following the students in this direction inevitably offer them a training of will. The administration should be very careful while making these applications. Because prohibitions always cause friction and conflict in students of that age.
The most important purpose of values education and teaching in secondary education is to increase the tendency towards the good and the right beauty in young people. Because the lessons on moral values such as character education, courtesy rules, cleanliness, fairness, honesty, love, justice and patience given in this period are better than lessons such as mathematics and geography.
Students should be given complete information such as good, bad, duty, responsibility and virtue and the idea of how to transform them into behavior should be formed. In addition, their moderation in the world of value, their ability to love and be loyal to real value should also be developed. (Bilgin and Selcuk 1991: 103)
If the world of values is not transferred to secondary school children and they cannot gain behavior, children cannot understand and make sense of what is happening around them and their history.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The only thing that is important in creating a healthy society with our spiritual values or values will be to transfer information to our students at schools. As vital as it is to teach culture and science lessons in schools, it is equally important to teach and transform our values into behavior.
Teaching is not just a set of mental activity between teacher and student. Developing students' emotional worlds, enriching positive behaviors that have become a habit in the family, and activities to be held in schools will be studies that will reveal the whole education.
Teaching values should be the ideal of all branch teachers and employees of the organization. Since values education does not only target the individual, it covers the whole society, it should be handled within the framework of the holisticity of education. Therefore, it is necessary for all stakeholders that make up the education system to gain sensitivity on values education. If we express the teachers and students as the most important stakeholders, it would be appropriate to start with them in order to create awareness in the society.
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